Everybody inhales a complex mixture of hyphal fragments, fungal spores, and yeasts daily. The species’ composition varies depending on the day and season, with the highest concentrations in late summer and early autumn. Fungi can damage their host through infection, ranging from superficial cutaneous infections to life-threatening invasive mycoses, by producing toxins, or by inducing allergic reactions.
The few species that have been detected in the upper and lower respiratory airways include yeasts, particularly Candida species, Penicillium, and Aspergillus species, with the latter constituting the most prominent cause of fungal lung infections. The Skin prick test and Specific IgE are most commonly used for the diagnosis of fungal sensitization.
Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) accounts for 5%- 10% of all cases of chronic rhinosinusitis. Around 50% of AFRS patients are asthmatic. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis(ABPA), or allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis are other spectrum of fungal infections. Treatment includes allergen avoidance, asthma treatment, antifungal and immunotherapy.
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